Early Head Start Home-Based Option Meets HHS Criteria

Model effectiveness research report last updated: 2016

Effects shown in research & outcome measure details

Family economic self-sufficiency

Findings rated high

Early Head Start Home-Based Option
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Parent employed
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 5 Home-based program approach Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Parent income (dollars)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 5 Home-based program approach Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = 0.16 Statistically significant, p < 0.05
Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Parent employed

Parents responded to the question "How much time in the past 6 months have you held a job or jobs in which you worked at least 20 hr per week?" (Answers were on a 5-point scale from 1-never to 5= all of the time.) Parent survey

Not reported by author

Parent income (dollars)

Parents provided monthly income. Parent survey

Not reported by author

Early Head Start Home-Based Option
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Average hours per week employed
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers Adjusted mean = 14.80 Adjusted mean = 15.10 Mean difference = -0.30 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Average hours per week in any employment, education, or training activity
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers Adjusted mean = 19.90 Adjusted mean = 18.50 Mean difference = 1.40 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Average hours per week in education or training
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers Adjusted mean = 4.50 Adjusted mean = 3.00 Mean difference = 1.50 Study reported = -0.24 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
Employed: 1st quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 33.80 % = 36.10 = -2.30 Study reported = 0.05 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Employed: 2nd quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 38.20 % = 42.90 = -4.70 Study reported = 0.10 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Employed: 3rd quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 46.90 % = 50.10 = -3.20 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Employed: 4th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 51.90 % = 51.70 = 0.20 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Employed: 5th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 57.70 % = 58.90 = -1.20 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Employed: 6th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 61.70 % = 58.20 = 3.50 Study reported = -0.07 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Employed: 7th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 57.50 % = 55.00 = 2.50 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Employed: 8th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 55.90 % = 59.90 = -4.00 Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Employment, education, or training: 1st quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 47.30 % = 48.40 = -1.10 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Employment, education, or training: 2nd quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 53.40 % = 55.50 = -2.10 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Employment, education, or training: 3rd quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 62.30 % = 62.90 = -0.60 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Employment, education, or training: 4th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 65.20 % = 61.60 = 3.60 Study reported = -0.08 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Employment, education, or training: 5th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 69.60 % = 67.90 = 1.70 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Employment, education, or training: 6th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 72.90 % = 66.40 = 6.50 Study reported = -0.14 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Employment, education, or training: 7th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 66.40 % = 62.70 = 3.70 Study reported = -0.08 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Employment, education, or training: 8th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 65.20 % = 66.60 = -14.00 Study reported = 0.03 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Ever employed
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 83.10 % = 81.80 = 1.30 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Ever employed or in education/training
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 90.50 % = 88.90 = 1.60 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Ever in education or training
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 53.10 % = 45.50 = 7.60 Study reported = -0.15 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Ever received AFDC or TANF
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 55.20 % = 52.50 = 2.70 Study reported = -0.06 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Ever received food stamps
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers = 66.70 = 65.40 = 1.30 Study reported = -0.03 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Ever received welfare
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers = 72.90 = 70.50 = 2.40 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Have GED
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 8.50 % = 11.50 = 3.00 Study reported = 0.09 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Have high school diploma
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 49.10 % = 45.70 = 3.40 Study reported = -0.07 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
In education or training: 1st quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 21.20 % = 21.60 = -0.40 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
In education or training: 2nd quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 25.10 % = 22.90 = 2.20 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
In education or training: 3rd quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 28.20 % = 26.50 = 1.70 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
In education or training: 4th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 27.10 % = 22.50 = 4.60 Study reported = -0.11 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
In education or training: 5th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 28.60 % = 22.90 = 5.70 Study reported = -0.13 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
In education or training: 6th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 28.70 % = 21.30 = 7.40 Study reported = -0.18 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
In education or training: 7th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 23.10 % = 17.60 = 5.50 Study reported = -0.14 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
In education or training: 8th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 24.30 % = 15.60 = 8.70 Study reported = -0.22 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
Income above poverty line, (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers Adjusted mean % = 41.10 Adjusted mean % = 40.80 Mean difference = 0.30 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Received AFDC or TANF: 1st quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 42.20 % = 29.40 = 12.80 Study reported = -0.06 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Received AFDC or TANF: 2nd quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 41.90 % = 42.40 = -0.50 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Received AFDC or TANF: 3rd quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 46.20 % = 43.90 = 2.30 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Received AFDC or TANF: 4th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 37.20 % = 38.10 = -0.90 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Received AFDC or TANF: 5th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 36.00 % = 37.80 = -1.80 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Received AFDC or TANF: 6th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 36.40 % = 38.50 = -2.10 Study reported = 0.05 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Received AFDC or TANF: 7th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 27.40 % = 32.10 = -4.70 Study reported = 0.11 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Received AFDC or TANF: 8th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 27.80 % = 27.80 = 0.00 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Total AFDC or TANF benefits ($)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers = 2675.50 = 2833.80 = -158.30 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Total food stamps benefits ($)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers Adjusted mean = 2297.80 Adjusted mean = 2152.50 Mean difference = 145.30 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Total welfare benefits ($)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers Adjusted mean = 5928.60 Adjusted mean = 6088.80 Mean difference = -160.20 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Average hours per week employed

The average hours per week that program participants spent in paid work Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Average hours per week in any employment, education, or training activity

The average hours per week that program participants spent in school, job/vocational training, or employment activities Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Average hours per week in education or training

The average hours per week that program participants spend in school or job/vocational training Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Employed

Percentage of parents who were employed at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th quarters after enrolling in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Employment, education, or training

Percentage of parents who participated in school, job/vocational training, or employment activities at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th quarters after enrolling in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Ever employed

Percentage of parents who had ever been employed during their time in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Ever employed or in education/training

Percentage of parents who had ever participated in an education or job training program or been employed during their time in the program Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Ever in education or training

Percentage of parents who had ever participated in an education or job training program during their time in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Ever received AFDC or TANF

Percentage of households that had ever received AFDC or TANF during their time in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Ever received food stamps

Percentage of households that had ever received food stamps during their time in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Ever received welfare

Percentage of households that had ever received welfare benefits during their time in the program, including (1) AFDC or TANF, (2) SSI, (3) food stamps, and (4) GA Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Has GED

Percentage of parents who had earned a GED Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Has high school diploma

Percentage of parents who had earned a high school diploma Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

In education or training

Percentage of parents who were participating in an education or job training program at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th quarters after enrolling in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Income above poverty line

Percentage of households that had a household income above the poverty line Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Received AFDC or TANF

Percentage of households that had ever received AFDC or TANF at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th quarters after enrolling in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Total AFDC or TANF benefits

A sum of reported household AFDC or TANF benefits Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Total food stamp benefits

A sum of reported household food stamp benefits Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Total welfare benefits

A sum of all reported household welfare benefits, including (1) AFDC or TANF, (2) SSI, (3) food stamps, and (4) GA Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Findings rated moderate

Early Head Start Home-Based Option
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Ever in ESL class
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 3.40 % = 2.40 = 1.00 Study reported = -0.07 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Ever in high school
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 12.60 % = 6.80 = 5.80 Study reported = -0.20 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
Ever in vocational program
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 941 mothers % = 18.20 % = 15.70 = 2.50 Study reported = -0.07 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Ever in ESL class

Percentage of parents who had ever enrolled in ESL classes during their time in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Ever in high school

Percentage of parents who had ever enrolled in high school during their time in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Ever in vocational program

Percentage of parents who had ever enrolled in a vocational training program during their time in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Early Head Start Home-Based Option
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Average hours per week employed
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers Adjusted mean = 12.70 Adjusted mean = 13.80 Mean difference = -1.10 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Average hours per week in any employment, education, or training activity
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers Adjusted mean = 17.80 Adjusted mean = 17.70 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Average hours per week in education or training
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers Adjusted mean = 4.90 Adjusted mean = 3.70 Mean difference = 1.20 Study reported = -0.16 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
Employed: 1st quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 36.00 % = 39.20 = -3.20 Study reported = 0.06 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Employed: 2nd quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 39.80 % = 46.40 = -6.60 Study reported = 0.13 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Employed: 3rd quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 46.80 % = 51.00 = -4.20 Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Employed: 4th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 52.20 % = 53.00 = -0.80 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Employed: 5th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 57.10 % = 60.80 = -3.70 Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Employment, education, or training: 1st quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 53.00 % = 52.90 = 0.10 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Employment, education, or training: 2nd quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 57.90 % = 59.90 = -2.00 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Employment, education, or training: 3rd quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 62.50 % = 59.90 = -1.50 Study reported = 0.03 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Employment, education, or training: 4th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 65.30 % = 64.00 = 1.90 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Employment, education, or training: 5th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 69.30 % = 63.40 = -1.20 Study reported = 0.03 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Ever employed
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 66.90 % = 69.60 = -2.70 Study reported = 0.06 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Ever employed or in education/training
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 79.20 % = 80.20 = -1.00 Study reported = 0.03 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Ever in ESL class (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 2.30 % = 0.70 = 1.60 Study reported = -0.15 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Ever in education or training (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 45.50 % = 39.60 = 6.30 Study reported = -0.12 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Ever in high school (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 11.50 % = 6.20 = 5.30 Study reported = -0.18 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
Ever in vocational program (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 12.70 % = 8.50 = -6.80 Study reported = -0.15 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Ever received AFDC or TANF
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 54.10 % = 52.60 Not reported = -1.50 Study reported = -0.03 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Ever received food stamps
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 66.00 % = 64.20 = 1.80 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Ever received welfare
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 75.30 % = 69.60 = 2.70 Study reported = -0.06 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Have GED
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 8.20 % = 9.00 = -0.80 Study reported = 0.03 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Have high school diploma
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 46.50 % = 45.90 = 0.60 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
In education or training: 1st quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 24.50 % = 23.30 = 1.20 Study reported = -0.03 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
In education or training: 2nd quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 28.90 % = 24.60 = 4.30 Study reported = -0.10 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
In education or training: 3rd quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 29.50 % = 26.70 = 2.80 Study reported = -0.06 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
In education or training: 4th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 28.20 % = 22.60 = 5.60 Study reported = -0.13 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
In education or training: 5th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 30.50 % = 23.60 = 6.90 Study reported = -0.16 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Income above poverty line, (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers Adjusted mean % = 30.50 Adjusted mean % = 29.70 Mean difference = 30.80 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Received AFDC or TANF: 1st quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 43.20 % = 40.40 = 2.80 Study reported = -0.06 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Received AFDC or TANF: 2nd quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 42.60 % = 43.00 = -0.40 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Received AFDC or TANF: 3rd quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 47.00 % = 44.50 = 2.50 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Received AFDC or TANF: 4th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 39.20 % = 39.50 = -0.30 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Received AFDC or TANF: 5th quarter
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers % = 37.80 % = 38.80 = -1.00 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Total AFDC or TANF benefits ($)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers Adjusted mean = 1967.80 Adjusted mean = 1927.50 Mean difference = 49.30 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Total food stamps benefits ($)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers Adjusted mean = 1435.80 Adjusted mean = 1400.90 Mean difference = 34.90 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Total welfare benefits ($)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
7 to 16 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact study 1059 mothers Adjusted mean = 4141.40 Adjusted mean = 3911.70 Mean difference = 229.70 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Average hours per week employed

Parents were asked about jobs that they had held during the follow-up period, including the start and end dates for those jobs and the typical hours per week they worked in those jobs. From that information, the authors constructed a weekly timeline of employment activities and indicators of whether parents were employed during the first five quarters following random assignment. They also calculated the average hours per week parents spent in employment during the 15-month follow-up period. Averages include zero hours. Parent report

Not applicable

Average hours per week in any employment, education, or training activity

The weekly histories of education/training activities and jobs were combined to create a timeline of participation in any of these self-sufficiency activities and indicators of whether parents participated in any self-sufficiency activities during each of the first five quarters following random assignment. The authors also added the average number of hours spent in education/training and jobs to get the average number of hours parents spent in any self-sufficiency activities during the first 15 months after random assignment. Averages include zero hours. Parent report

Not applicable

Average hours per week in education or training

The average hours per week that program participants spent in school or job/vocational training Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Employed

Percentage of parents who were employed at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th quarters after enrolling in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Employment, education, or training

Percentage of parents who participated in school, job/vocational training, or employment activities at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th quarters after enrolling in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Ever employed

Percentage of parents who had ever been employed during their time in the program Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Ever employed or in education/training

Percentage of parents who had ever participated in an education or job training program or been employed during their time in the program Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Ever in ESL class

Percentage of parents who had ever enrolled in ESL classes during their time in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Ever in education or training

Percentage of parents who had ever participated in an education or job training program during their time in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Ever in high school

Percentage of parents who had ever enrolled in high school during their time in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Ever in vocational program

Percentage of parents who had ever enrolled in a vocational training program during their time in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Ever received AFDC or TANF

Parents were asked about their receipt of benefits, including the amount they received and the months during which they received it. From this information the authors created a monthly timeline of benefit receipt, as well as indicators of benefit receipt during each of the first five quarters after random assignment. They also added the benefit amounts to obtain the total amount received during the 15-month follow-up period. Parent report

Not applicable

Ever received food stamps

Parents were asked about their receipt of benefits, including the amount they received and the months during which they received it. From this information the authors created a monthly timeline of benefit receipt, as well as indicators of benefit receipt during each of the first five quarters after random assignment. They also added the benefit amounts to obtain the total amount received during the 15-month follow-up period. Parent report

Not applicable

Ever received other welfare

Percentage of households that had ever received welfare benefits during their time in the program, including (1) AFDC or TANF, (2) SSI, (3) food stamps, and (4) GA Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Ever received welfare

Parents were asked about their receipt of benefits, including the amount they received and the months during which they received it. From this information the authors created a monthly timeline of benefit receipt, as well as indicators of benefit receipt during each of the first five quarters after random assignment. They also added the benefit amounts to obtain the total amount received during the 15-month follow-up period. Parent report

Not applicable

Has GED

Percentage of parents who had earned a GED Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Has high school diploma

Percentage of parents who had earned a high school diploma Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

In education or training

Percentage of parents who were participating in an education or job training program at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th quarters after enrolling in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Income above poverty line, (percentage)

Parents were asked about their family income during the last year. The authors compared information on their annual income and the number of children in their family with federal poverty levels to create an indicator of whether or not the family’s income during the year prior to the second follow-up was above the poverty level. Parent report

Not applicable

Received AFDC or TANF

Percentage of households that had ever received AFDC or TANF at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th quarters after enrolling in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Total AFDC or TANF benefits

A sum of reported household AFDC or TANF benefits Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Total food stamp benefits

A sum of reported household food stamp benefits Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Total welfare benefits ($)

A sum of all reported household welfare benefits, including (1) AFDC or TANF, (2) SSI, (3) food stamps, and (4) GA Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

View Revisions