Implementing Child Parent Enrichment Project (CPEP)

Model implementation profile last updated: 2012

Model overview

Theoretical approach

Child Parent Enrichment Project (CPEP) was based on the theory that enhancing mother-child relationships, social and material support, goal setting, and problem solving can reduce the risk of child abuse. Positive mother-child relationships were seen as a byproduct of a healthy pregnancy and labor, an overall feeling of wanting the child, and knowing that caring for the child will be manageable. Having the emotional, informational, and material resources that often accompany a social support network were thought to lessen the risk of child maltreatment. The ability to set goals and solve problems could help parents manage the difficulties of infant caregiving. Implementation of CPEP was based on a task-centered approach in which parents identified and completed tasks to achieve their goals.

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Implementation support availability

CPEP was developed as a child abuse-prevention pilot program by Richard Barth at the University of California, Berkeley, School of Social Welfare and offered through a nonprofit community-based organization. Implementation support and technical assistance was available through the developer.

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Intended population

CPEP served pregnant women at risk for child abuse. Mothers were eligible for referral to the program if they exhibited two or more risk factors on a nine-item checklist, although community professionals had considerable discretion when making referrals. The checklist included underuse of needed community services; a criminal or mental illness record; mother previously suspected of abuse; low self-esteem; chaotic lifestyle; lack of social support from father or family; low intelligence or poor health of mother; unplanned or unwanted pregnancy; and previous or ongoing abuse of mother.

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Targeted outcomes

CPEP aimed to reduce the stressors that can contribute to child abuse, promote good parenting, and ultimately reduce child abuse.

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Model services

CPEP services consisted of home visits with paraprofessional parenting consultants. During home visits, consultants and parents discussed tasks associated with the parent’s goals for caring for herself and the child and recorded tasks that had been performed. Tasks could be completed during or between home visits, and in the parent’s home or within the community. There were three types of tasks: parent-focused, consultant-focused, and shared. Parent-focused tasks were completed by the parents alone and could include preparing one clean room for the baby to come home to; visiting a thrift shop to obtain a crib; visiting the labor room; and using a respite care program one-half day per week after the child is born. Tasks led by parenting consultants, either during or between visits, included modeling positive parenting and home care skills; advocating on a client’s behalf; and discussing the care of a colicky baby. Typical joint tasks were driving together to a church to pick up food and repairing an appliance together.

No information was available about the curriculum used for this model.

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Model intensity and length

Home visits occurred approximately twice per month over a six-month period.

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Adaptations and enhancements

No adaptations or enhancements were made to CPEP.

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Organizational requirements

CPEP was provided by a nonprofit community-based organization in Contra Costa County, CA.

No information was available about whether the model specified any fidelity guidelines that implementing programs or parenting consultants were required to meet on an ongoing basis.

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Staffing requirements

Public health, education, or social service professionals referred clients to CPEP after assessing clients during routine meetings to determine whether their circumstances might be risk factors for child abuse. Paraprofessional parenting consultants who either were mothers or had significant infant caregiving responsibilities delivered the program components. Parenting consultants were paired with parents from the same geographic community and of the same racial/ethnic background.

No information was available regarding supervisor or coordinator roles. No information was available regarding the minimum education requirements for the parenting consultants or minimum education or experience requirements for supervisors.

Parenting consultants were primarily supervised as a group, with consultation provided as needed.

Paraprofessional parenting consultants underwent more than 100 hours of training that covered the perinatal period, community resources, child abuse and child abuse reporting, and team building. Training also included the basics of implementing a task-centered service approach, in which consultants focused on identifying goals to improve parental self-care and child care and enhancing parents’ ability to identify and complete tasks to meet their goals.

No information was available about whether the model required that parenting consultants participate in ongoing professional development.

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