Implementing Early Intervention Program for Adolescent Mothers Meets HHS Criteria

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Model implementation summary last updated: 2019

The information in this implementation report reflects feedback, if provided, from this model’s developer as of the above date. The description of the implementation of the model(s) here may differ from how the model(s) was implemented in the manuscripts reviewed to determine this model’s evidence of effectiveness. Inclusion in the implementation report does not mean the practices described meet the HHS criteria for evidence of effectiveness. Please see the Effectiveness button on the left for more information about any research on the effectiveness of the model, including any version(s) of the model with effectiveness research. Versions of the model that are described in the Adaptations and enhancements section of this implementation report may include (1) versions that were identified by the model’s developer and (2) versions that have been implemented by researchers and have manuscripts that HomVEE rated high or moderate, but that are not supported by the model’s developer.

Model overview

Theoretical approach

The Early Intervention Program (EIP) for Adolescent Mothers was designed to help young mothers gain social competence and achieve model objectives by teaching self-management skills, techniques for coping with stress and depression, and skills to communicate effectively with partners, family, peers, and social agencies.
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Implementation support

EIP was developed by researchers at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) School of Nursing. The model developer and director provided implementation support. EIP was initially implemented as a collaborative demonstration project between the developer and the San Bernardino County Department of Public Health, Division of Community Health Services.
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Intended population

EIP served pregnant adolescents from underserved minority groups who were referred to the county health department or another health services agency for nursing care. Women were eligible for EIP if they were 14 to 19 years old; at 26 weeks gestation or less; pregnant with their first child; and planning to keep the infant. Expectant mothers who were chemically dependent or had serious medical or obstetric problems were ineligible. Although EIP initially targeted adolescents, young mothers out of adolescence also may have benefited from the model.
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Targeted outcomes

EIP was designed to improve maternal health behaviors during and after pregnancy; improve birth outcomes and mother and infant health; build maternal caretaking skills and improve the quality of mother-child interaction; prevent rapid repeat pregnancy; increase educational achievement; and build social competence.
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Model services

Nurse home visitors delivered EIP services using a case management approach. During home visits, nurse home visitors covered five main content areas: (1) health, (2) sexuality and family planning, (3) maternal role, (4) life skills, and (5) social support.

Prenatal visits focused on the use of prenatal health care, preparation for childbirth, and self-care during pregnancy. In addition, nurse home visitors conducted four classes focusing on the transition to motherhood, fetal development, parent-child communication, and maternal health.

During the postpartum visits, nurse home visitors provided mothers with information on family planning; infant care and development; well-baby health care; education attainment; substance use; mental health issues, such as handling emotions; and referrals for mental health counseling, family planning, and child care. For example, EIP addressed the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (such as HIV/AIDs), contraceptive options, school readiness preparations (such as reading to children), and prevention of lead poisoning. Nurse home visitors also helped mothers improve communication skills and learn how to assess their infants’ needs, respond to infant distress, and interact reciprocally with their infants. To help mothers improve their infant interaction and nurturing skills, nurse home visitors used videotherapy, in which they videotaped a mother interacting with her infant and subsequently solicited the mother’s opinion about the quality of the interaction.

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Model intensity and length

EIP included home visits from mid-pregnancy through the end of the child’s first year. The model included 17 home visits—2 prenatal and 15 postpartum—each lasted 1.5 to 2.0 hours. Postnatal visits occurred when the child was one, four, and six weeks old and at monthly intervals between the child’s 2nd and 12th months. In addition, EIP offered four “preparation for motherhood” classes.
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EIP was initially developed and implemented in San Bernardino County, California, which comprised urban and rural communities, an ethnically diverse population, and a high teen birth rate relative to state and national rates.
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Adaptations and enhancements

No information was available.
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Implementation notes

The information contained on this page was last updated in October 2019. In addition, the information contained in this profile was reviewed for accuracy by the developer from the University of California at Los Angeles, School of Nursing in April 2013. HomVEE reserves the right to edit the profile for clarity and consistency.

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