Implementing Pride in Parenting (PIP)

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Model implementation summary last updated: 2013

The information in this implementation report reflects feedback, if provided, from this model’s developer as of the above date. The description of the implementation of the model(s) here may differ from how the model(s) was implemented in the manuscripts reviewed to determine this model’s evidence of effectiveness. Inclusion in the implementation report does not mean the practices described meet the HHS criteria for evidence of effectiveness. Please see the Effectiveness button on the left for more information about any research on the effectiveness of the model, including any version(s) of the model with effectiveness research. Versions of the model that are described in the Adaptations and enhancements section of this implementation report may include (1) versions that were identified by the model’s developer and (2) versions that have been implemented by researchers and have manuscripts that HomVEE rated high or moderate, but that are not supported by the model’s developer.

Model overview

Theoretical approach

Pride in Parenting (PIP) targeted infant health, parenting behaviors, parental coping skills, and parental social support systems for mothers who received late or inadequate prenatal care.

The developers of PIP chose to use paraprofessional home visitors based on the theory that community-based lay home visitors with a shared racial and/or ethnic background would be better able to foster trusting and communicative relationships with program participants.

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Implementation support

PIP was a demonstration program designed and implemented by a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional group of scientists in the early 1990s as part of the National Institutes of Health Initiative to Reduce Infant Mortality in Minority Populations in the District of Columbia.

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Intended population

PIP targeted mothers who received late or inadequate prenatal care, which is associated with later insufficient use of preventative pediatric services after birth. Inadequate prenatal care was defined as (1) five or fewer prenatal visits, or (2) prenatal visits initiated during the third trimester. PIP recruited women with newborn infants in the immediate postpartum period from four hospitals in Washington, DC.

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Targeted outcomes

By influencing mothers’ knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviors surrounding parenting, health, nutrition, and use of health services, PIP aimed to (1) increase mothers’ use of preventative health care for both themselves and their children and (2) improve the safety and structure of child-rearing environments. PIP also targeted social competence, or the ability to obtain and maintain a network of social support at the community, family, and personal levels.

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Model services

PIP included home visits, hospital-based group sessions for parent-infant developmental play groups and parent support groups, and telephone calls.

During visits, home visitors offered developmentally appropriate instruction on parenting and child care. In addition, home visitors provided information regarding health and development and helped link mothers to social service and community health resources.

Hospital-based group sessions led by an infant development specialist and the home visitors expanded on topics covered during home visits. Specifically, developmental play groups aimed to enhance parents’ knowledge of infant development and improve parent-child interactions. Parent support groups were designed to reinforce topics covered in the developmental play groups and address issues related to parenting, family concerns, preventative health care, daily care, and safety. Parent support groups allowed mothers to develop social support networks, and share concerns about and gain confidence in their ability to implement parental and personal tasks.

A family resource specialist made monthly calls to mothers to provide referrals to community resources, social support services, and health care services.

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Model intensity and length

Home visits occurred weekly from an infant’s birth through four months of age. From five through twelve months of age, PIP alternated biweekly home visits with biweekly group sessions. No information is available on the length of home visits. Group sessions lasted 90 minutes, with a 45-minute developmental play group followed by a 45-minute parent support group. In total, PIP included 32 home visits and 16 group sessions during the year-long intervention. Participants also received monthly calls from the program’s family resource specialist.

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PIP was implemented in Washington, DC.

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Adaptations and enhancements

No information is available.

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Implementation notes

The information contained on this page was last updated in April 2013. Recommended further reading lists the sources for this information

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