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Drotar, D., Robinson, J., Jeavons, L., & Lester Kirchner, H. (2009). A randomized, controlled evaluation of early intervention: The Born to Learn curriculum. Child: Care, Health & Development, 35(5), 643–649.

Model(s) Reviewed: Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Manuscript screening details
Screening decision Screening conclusion HomVEE procedures and standards version
Passes screens Eligible for review Version 1
Study design details
Rating Design Attrition Baseline equivalence Compromised randomization Confounding factors Valid, reliable measure(s)
High Randomized controlled trial Low Not applicable None None Not assessed in manuscripts reviewed before 2021
Study characteristics
Study participants The sample included 459 mothers with children who were measured at ages 12, 18, 24, and 36 months. All women were recruited for enrollment in the Parents as Teachers (PAT) program with the Born to Learn (BTL) curriculum within nine months of the child’s birth. Study enrollment occurred between 1999 and 2001. Most mothers had more than a high school education (83%). Most study participants were either white (66%) or African American (29%). Most households had an income greater than or equal to $30,000 (70%). Eighty percent of mothers were married or lived with a significant other.
Setting Participants in the study resided in Cleveland, Ohio, and its eastern suburbs.
Intervention services Families enrolled in PAT with the BTL curriculum received two home visits in the first month after enrollment and monthly visits and group meetings thereafter for a period of three years. Each visit to the family home was delivered by a trained parent educator who provided handouts and videos emphasizing key age-specific child development principles. Parents also attended group meetings that emphasized BTL curriculum. Among those families enrolled in PAT , 64% participated and remained in the program for all three years.
Comparison conditions The comparison families received handouts describing children’s development at various ages and an invitation to participate in parent education services, such as parent discussion groups, which were held separately from those of the treatment group. None of this information included any of the BTL curriculum content or structure.
Subgroups examined This field lists subgroups examined in the manuscript (even if they were not replicated in other samples and not reported on the summary page for this model’s report).
Subgroups are not listed for manuscripts reviewed before 2021.
Staff characteristics and training Parent educators were trained by the PAT national staff during a weeklong session. Implementation by parent educators was monitored and evaluated based on PAT National Center standards: home visit attendance, coverage of curriculum material, and performance (for example, establishing rapport and executing BTL curriculum activities).
Funding sources Mt. Sinai Health Care Foundation; Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Author affiliation None of the study authors are developers of this model.
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed status is not listed for manuscripts reviewed before 2021.

Findings details

Child development and school readiness
Rating Outcome measure Effect Sample Timing of follow-up Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
High BSID Behavioral Rating Scale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Ohio sample 24 month 354 children Mean = 109.63 Mean = 109.20 Mean difference = 0.43 Study reported = 0.06 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.56

footnote74

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

High BSID Mental Development Scale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Ohio sample 24 month 344 children Mean = 96.97 Mean = 97.75 Mean difference = -0.78 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.67

footnote74

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

High BSID, Behavioral Rating Scale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Ohio sample 36 month 342 children Mean = 111.84 Mean = 113.48 Mean difference = -1.64 Study reported = -0.14 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.20

footnote74

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

High CBRS, Engagement Score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Ohio sample 24 month 336 children Mean = 2.81 Mean = 2.98 Mean difference = -0.17 Study reported = -0.17 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.11

footnote65

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Information on outcomes was received through communication with the authors.

footnote74

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

High CBRS, Negative Affect Score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Ohio sample 24 month 336 children Mean = 4.93 Mean = 4.93 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.97

footnote65

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Information on outcomes was received through communication with the authors.

High CBRS, Positive Affect Score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Ohio sample 24 month 336 children Mean = 2.43 Mean = 2.44 Mean difference = -0.01 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.96

footnote65

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Information on outcomes was received through communication with the authors.

footnote74

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

High CBRS: Involvement Score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Ohio sample 24 month 330 children Mean = 4.13 Mean = 4.18 Mean difference = -0.05 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.73

footnote65

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Information on outcomes was received through communication with the authors.

footnote74

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

High KABC Simultaneous Processing Standard Score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Ohio sample 36 month 331 children Mean = 107.77 Mean = 109.29 Mean difference = -1.52 Study reported = -0.11 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.30
High SSRS Parent Report
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Ohio sample 36 month 336 children Mean = 103.07 Mean = 100.37 Mean difference = 2.70 Study reported = 0.18 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.09
High TERA-2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Ohio sample 36 month 333 children Mean = 106.12 Mean = 105.58 Mean difference = 0.54 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.72
High Bracken Basic Concept Scale composite
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Ohio sample 36 month 336 children Mean = 113.47 Mean = 112.23 Mean difference = 1.24 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.51
High Mastery Motivation – Task Competence
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Ohio sample 36 month 319 children Mean = 847.98 Mean = 841.74 Mean difference = 6.24 Study reported = 0.20 Statistically significant,
p = 0.05
High Mastery Motivation – Task Persistence
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Ohio sample 36 month 318 children Mean = 17.30 Mean = 16.49 Mean difference = 0.81 Study reported = 0.20 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.07
High Mastery Motivation – Task Pleasure
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Ohio sample 36 month 319 children Mean = 0.51 Mean = 0.52 Mean difference = -0.01 Study reported = -0.03 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.71

footnote74

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

High Q-Sort Security of Attachment
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Ohio sample 18 month 364 children Mean = 34.43 Mean = 35.46 Mean difference = -1.03 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.64

footnote65

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Information on outcomes was received through communication with the authors.

footnote74

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

Outcome measure summary

Child development and school readiness
Outcome measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure

BSID:

  • Mental Development Scale
  • Behavioral Rating Scale
The BSID tests the mental, motor, and behavioral development and abilities of young children. The researchers examined both the mental development and behavioral subscales. Child assessment

Not reported by author

BBCS-R

The BBCS-R assesses knowledge of basic concepts and receptive language skills in young children. Child assessment

Not reported by author

CBRS:

  • Engagement score
  • Positive Affect score
  • Negative Affect score,
  • Involvement score
The CBRS assesses behavioral problems in young children. The researchers examined scores related to engagement, involvement, and positive and negative affect. Observation

Interrater reliability = 0.81 to 0.90

KABC: Simultaneous Processing Standard score

The KABC assesses achievement and intelligence in young children. Child assessment

Not reported by author

SSRS

The SSRS assesses social skills, academic competence, and problem behaviors in young children. Parent/caregiver and teacher report

Not reported by author

TERA-2

The TERA-2 assesses early reading skills in young children. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Attachment Q-Sort scale

The Attachment Q-Sort assesses security of attachment and dependency in young children. Observation

Interrater reliability = 0.90

Mastery Motivation – Task Persistence, Task Pleasure, Task Competence

Children were introduced to various toys and were evaluated based upon persistence, pleasure, and competence in problem solving for up to 4 minutes. Observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78 to 0.91