Child development and school readiness

In brief

Overview

The promotion of child development and school readiness is an important goal for some of the early childhood home visiting models in the HomVEE review. Models address this goal by engaging parents in activities designed to improve child functioning across developmental areas, educating parents about child development and strategies to enhance school readiness (such as literacy activities), and promoting positive parent-child interactions. Some also link families to center-based early childhood care and education experiences.

Measurement considerations

Outcomes in this domain include the child’s social behaviors, attachment to a parent or caregiver, social-emotional or psychological development, or cognitive and academic development. Outcome measures in this domain include direct child assessments, reviews of school records, direct observations of children’s behavior, and parent and teacher reports on standardized measures. Other outcome measures include parent and teacher reports on measures that are not standardized. Note: if a parent or child reports that the child ran away from home, that measure would be reported in this domain. However, the information were drawn from child welfare records, that measure would be listed under the reductions in child maltreatment domain.

Child mental and behavioral health belong in this domain. HomVEE categorizes measures of children’s mental and behavioral health in the child development and school readiness domain, in contrast to the measures of physical health that are reported in the child health domain.

Formal, center-based child care. HomVEE categorizes measures of attendance at formal, center-based care in early childhood in this domain, and categorizes the direction of statistically significant impacts on such measures as having ambiguous direction.

Categorizing runaway information. If a parent or child reports that the child ran away from home, that measure would be reported in this domain. In contrast, if a child running away is information drawn from child welfare records, that measure would be listed under the reductions in child maltreatment domain.

Categorizing attachment measures. Attachment between parent and child is a dyadic concept that does not map precisely to one single outcome domain HomVEE focuses on, as specified in MIECHV authorizing statute (Social Security Act, Section 511 [42 U.S.C. 711]). Therefore, if a measure of attachment examines child behavior, HomVEE places it in the child development and school readiness domain. Examples include attachment to the caregiver during infancy, engagement in a difficult task during toddler years, problem behaviors, and inhibitory control. In contrast, HomVEE places attachment measures that examine caregiver behavior (such as sensitivity and nurturance), as well as measures that are truly dyadic (such as the Dyadic Coercive Interactions measure in the Relationship Affect Coding System), in the positive parenting practices domain.

Review of research

The HomVEE review examined the research on 50 early childhood home visiting models with manuscripts published in 1979 through 2020. (HomVEE counts related versions, commonly referred to as adaptations, together in this section and in the table below. More information is available in the procedures and standards handbook.) Of the 23 models with manuscripts about high- or moderate-quality studies that measured outcomes in this domain, 19 had favorable effects.

Summary of findings

The effects shown in the research are grouped into four categories: (1) favorable, (2) no effect, (3) unfavorable or ambiguous, and (4) not measured. Results for models that only have low-rated research are listed as “not applicable.” For more information on these categories please read the procedures and standards handbook. Only results from manuscripts that receive a moderate or high rating are considered below. This table includes manuscripts links to more information on the model’s effectiveness, implementation, and details on findings in this domain.

Effects shown in research — Child development and school readiness domain

Summary of findings across models for the child development and school readiness outcome domain
Model Meets HHS criteria Findings For more information

Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up (ABC) -Infant

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 10
No effect: 12
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Child First

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 5
No effect: 11
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Child Parent Enrichment Project (CPEP)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Favorable: 1
No effect: 2
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Computer-Assisted Motivational Intervention (CAMI)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Early Head Start Home-Based Option

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 5
No effect: 41
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Early Intervention Program for Adolescent Mothers

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Early Start (New Zealand)

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 2
No effect: 5
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 1
For more information

Early Steps to School Success™—Home Visiting

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Even Start-Home Visiting (Birth to Age 5)

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not applicable
For more information

Family Check-Up® For Children

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 10
No effect: 27
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Family Connections (Birth to Age 5)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not applicable
For more information

Family Connects

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Family Spirit®

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 10
No effect: 30
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Following Baby Back Home (FBBH)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Health Access Nurturing Development Services (HANDS) Program

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Not measured
For more information

HealthConnect One's® Community-Based Doula Program

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Healthy Beginnings

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 1
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Healthy Families America (HFA)®

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 12
No effect: 44
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Healthy Start-Home Visiting

HHS has determined that Healthy Start is not eligible for review by HomVEE because it is a federal grant program and not a home visiting model. Information on Healthy Start has been removed from the website.

Findings
Not measured
For more information

Healthy Steps (National Evaluation 1996 Protocol)

This report focuses on Healthy Steps as implemented in the 1996 evaluation. HHS has determined that home visiting is not the primary service delivery strategy and the model does not meet current requirements for MIECHV program implementation.

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 2
No effect: 6
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 1
For more information

Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY)®

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 11
No effect: 37
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 1
For more information

Home-Start

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

HOMEBUILDERS (Birth to Age 5)®

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not applicable
For more information

Maternal Early Childhood Sustained Home-Visiting Program (MECSH)

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker (MIHOW)®

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Maternal Infant Health Program (MIHP)

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Minding the Baby® Home Visiting (MTB-HV)

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 0
No effect: 2
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

MOM Program

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Favorable: 0
No effect: 5
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Mothers’ Advocates in the Community (MOSAIC)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

North Carolina Baby Love Maternal Outreach Workers Program

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 39
No effect: 238
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 2
For more information

Nurses for Newborns®

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Nurturing Parenting Programs (Birth to Age 5)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Oklahoma’s Community-Based Family Resource and Support (CBFRS) Program

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Parent-Child Assistance Program (P-CAP)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

ParentChild+® Core Model

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Favorable: 2
No effect: 13
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 8
No effect: 80
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 1
For more information

Philani Outreach Programme

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Play and Learning Strategies (PALS)

Entries in this row combine information across all versions of PALS. Only PALS Infant meets HHS criteria for an evidence-based home visiting model. Some other versions of PALS have at least one manuscript about a high- or moderate-quality impact study, but no version of the model other than PALS Infant meets HHS criteria for an evidence-based home visiting model.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Favorable: 6
No effect: 21
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 1
For more information

Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 1
No effect: 15
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Pride in Parenting (PIP)

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Promoting First Relationships®—Home Visiting Promotion Model

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Favorable: 3
No effect: 11
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Promoting Parental Skills and Enhancing Attachment in Early Childhood (CAPEDP) Trial

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Resource Mothers Program

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Resources, Education, and Care in the Home (REACH)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Favorable: 0
No effect: 1
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

REST Routine

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Favorable: 2
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

SafeCare®

Entries in this row combine information across all versions of SafeCare. Only SafeCare Augmented meets HHS criteria for an evidence-based home visiting model. For SafeCare itself, there are no manuscripts about high- or moderate-quality impact studies. Some other versions of SafeCare have at least one such manuscript. Planned Activities Training (a SafeCare module) and Cellular Phone Enhanced Planned Activities Training (a SafeCare module with an add-on) show evidence of effectiveness.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Favorable: 5
No effect: 9
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

SafeCare Augmented

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Seattle-King County Healthy Homes Project

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not applicable
For more information

Triple P - Positive Parenting Program®—Variants suitable for home visiting

No Triple P intervention is exclusively delivered in the home with families with children from birth through age 5. This profile is based on (1) studies of programs that provided Triple P services in the home to families with children from birth through age 5, and (2) developer input on the Triple P interventions suitable for delivery in the home with families with children from birth through age 5.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Favorable: 1
No effect: 8
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Video-Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting-Sensitive Discipline® (VIPP-SD)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Favorable: 0
No effect: 20
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information