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Drazen, S. M., & Haust, M. (1993, August). Raising reading readiness in low-income children by parent education. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association.

Model(s) Reviewed: Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Manuscript screening details
Screening decision Screening conclusion HomVEE procedures and standards version
Passes screens Eligible for review Version 1
Study design details
Rating Design Attrition Baseline equivalence Compromised randomization Confounding factors Valid, reliable measure(s)
Moderate Non-experimental comparison group design Not applicable Established on race/ethnicity, SES, and outcomes Not applicable None Not assessed in manuscripts reviewed before 2021
Notes:

In 2020, HomVEE updated this review to remove two findings related to open and suspected cases of abuse and neglect from the Reductions in Child Maltreatment domain because some cases measured may be unsubstantiated. In this domain HomVEE reviews only outcomes focused on substantiated cases of abuse and neglect.

footnote172

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

This study receives a mixed rating. The authors conducted two studies. Two outcomes from Study 1 rate low and all of Study 2 rates low because baseline equivalence was not demonstrated on race/ethnicity, SES, or outcomes (low-rated outcomes are not reported). In Study 1, receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) at present rates low because, though groups were equivalent at baseline on this measure, the authors do not control for it in analyses. In addition, months receiving AFDC rates low because baseline equivalence is not established on this measure (baseline data are not reported). The other outcomes reported in Study 1 receive a moderate rating.

Study characteristics
Study participants The intervention group comprised 20 Parents and Children Together (PACT) graduates ages 4 and 5 with the highest risk of school failure whose parents started participation in PACT between the time of the child’s birth and first birthday (most started when children were newborns). A comparison child was selected for each intervention child based on race, sex, educational experience, participation in Head Start, and number of risk factors, for a total of 20 comparison children.
Setting This study took place in Binghamton City School District in New York.
Intervention services Trained and certified parent educators visit the families’ homes at least one per month, starting at birth and continuing until the child is 3 years old. Parent educators provide information about child development and demonstrate parenting techniques. They also refer parents to other agencies when appropriate. The program provides developmental screening tests, parent group meetings, and access to parenting resources such as books and toys.
Comparison conditions The comparison condition was business as usual.
Subgroups examined This field lists subgroups examined in the manuscript (even if they were not replicated in other samples and not reported on the summary page for this model’s report).
Subgroups are not listed for manuscripts reviewed before 2021.
Staff characteristics and training No information given.
Funding sources No information given.
Author affiliation None of the authors is a developer of this model.
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed status is not listed for manuscripts reviewed before 2021.

Findings details

Child development and school readiness
Rating Outcome measure Effect Sample Timing of follow-up Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Moderate Achievement-Kaufman ABC
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 24 children Unadjusted mean = 97.00 Unadjusted mean = 94.00 Mean difference = 3.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.25 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Moderate Achievement-Kaufman ABC, % Below 90
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 24 children Unadjusted mean = 0.25 Unadjusted mean = 0.20 Mean difference = 0.05 HomeVEE calculated = 0.17 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Moderate Fine Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.30 Unadjusted mean = 0.50 Mean difference = -0.20 HomeVEE calculated = -0.30 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Moderate Fine Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test, % Below Age Level
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.25 Unadjusted mean = 0.40 Mean difference = -0.15 HomeVEE calculated = -0.41 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Moderate Gross Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.10 Unadjusted mean = 0.90 Mean difference = -0.80 HomeVEE calculated = -0.77 Statistically significant, p < 0.05
Moderate Gross Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test, % Below Age Level
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.10 Unadjusted mean = 0.45 Mean difference = -0.35 HomeVEE calculated = 1.05 Statistically significant, p < 0.05
Moderate Language Acquisition Quotient-Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 40 children Unadjusted mean = 107.00 Unadjusted mean = 100.00 Mean difference = 7.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.57 Statistically significant, p < 0.05
Moderate Language Acquisition Quotient-Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale, % Below Age Level
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.30 Unadjusted mean = 0.65 Mean difference = -0.35 HomeVEE calculated = -0.80 Statistically significant, p < 0.05
Moderate Mental Processing-Kaufman ABC
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 24 children Unadjusted mean = 102.00 Unadjusted mean = 94.00 Mean difference = 8.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.62 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Moderate Mental Processing-Kaufman ABC, % Below 90
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 24 children Unadjusted mean = 0.05 Unadjusted mean = 0.25 Mean difference = -0.20 HomeVEE calculated = -1.27 Statistically significant, p < 0.05
Family economic self-sufficiency
Rating Outcome measure Effect Sample Timing of follow-up Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Moderate Change in AFDC Status
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 40 children Unadjusted mean = -0.10 Unadjusted mean = 0.20 Mean difference = -0.30 Not available Statistically significant, p < 0.05
Reductions in child maltreatment
Rating Outcome measure Effect Sample Timing of follow-up Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Moderate Abuse and/or Neglect-DSS and School Records, Confirmed Cases 1987-1992
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.25 Unadjusted mean = 0.25 Mean difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05

Outcome measure summary

Child development and school readiness
Outcome measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure

Achievement-Kaufman ABC

Mean score on achievement portion of Kaufman Assessment Battery for children (K- ABC) Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Achievement-Kaufman ABC, % Below 90

Percentage of children who scored below 90 on achievement portion of Kaufman Assessment Battery for children (K- ABC) Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Fine Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test

Mean number of fine motor delays (definite delays) and cautions (questionable delays) on the Denver Developmental Screening Test Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Fine Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test, % Below Age Level

Percentage of children who scored below age level for fine motor delays (definite delays) and cautions (questionable delays) on the Denver Developmental Screening Test Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Gross Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test

Mean number of gross motor delays (definite delays) and cautions (questionable delays) on the Denver Developmental Screening Test Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Gross Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test, % Below Age Level

Percentage of children who scored below age level for gross motor delays (definite delays) and cautions (questionable delays) on the Denver Developmental Screening Test Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Language Acquisition Quotient-Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale

Mean language age quotient on Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale, calculated by comparing the child's language development with his/her chronical age to measure language development. Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Language Acquisition Quotient-Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale, % Below Age Level

Percentage of children whose language age quotient was below 100 on the Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale, indicating their language development was below their cronical age. Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Mental Processing-Kaufman ABC

Mean score on mental processing portion of Kaufman Assessment Battery for children (K- ABC) Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Mental Processing-Kaufman ABC, % Below 90

Percentage of children who scored below 90 on mental processing portion of Kaufman Assessment Battery for children (K- ABC) Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Family economic self-sufficiency
Outcome measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure

Change in AFDC Status

Difference in percentage of families who received AFDC when children were age 1 and when children were age 4 or 5 Department of Social Services records

Not applicable

Reductions in child maltreatment
Outcome measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure

Abuse and/or Neglect-DSS and School Records, Confirmed Cases 1987-1992

Percentage of children who had confirmed cases of abuse and/or neglect Department of Social Services records, school records

Not applicable